Argument Types

Each time you say something to persuade someone, you are giving them an argument to do something. There are many different kinds of arguments, but almost all of them have the following parts

  • Logic – People born in Korea are Koreans
  • Evidence – Mike was born in Korea
  • Claim – Mike is Korean
  • Reservation - Unless Mike's parents are not Korean

The claim is your main assertion (the label of the argument). Arguments usually start with a claim. Evidence is some kind of real-world proof or observation (a fact or statistic or quote). The logic connects the claim and evidence. If the logic and evidence are correct, then the claim is proven to be true. The reservation is some exceptional situation, when even if the logic and evidence are correct, sometimes the claim is not true.



Category

Definition

Example

Example

Create association between examples and a more general rule

3 debaters are coming doing badly, so this class is doing badly

Analogy

Create association between things or situations that are similar

Iraq war is becoming like Vietnam war. We have to deal with North Korea like East Germany

Cause & Effect

Create association between cause and effect

Smoking leads to heart disease. Gambling leads to poverty

Authority

Associate with opinion of experts in the field

Kofi Annan says we should support the Millennium Plan more

Principle

Connect a situation with a general principle

Capital punishment is always unjust because it violates the principle of the Right to Life